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The history of Champagne, also called Champagne wine, goes back almost 2000 years. The Champagne region then produced wine that was very different from the wines of other regions, such as the Côte du Rhône and Burgundy. In the Middle Ages, the Church, aware of the potential of these vines, took care to develop them. Later, during the coronations of kings in Reims, the wine of Champagne is present at each meal, making the happiness of the many guests. The whole world began to have positive echoes of the wines of Champagne around the 13th century. After the French Revolution in 1790, the revolutionaries only drank Champagne to celebrate their victory. In the 19th century, the wine of Champagne, which was highly appreciated by politicians and statesmen, was regularly found on the table during business meetings. Today, Champagne, synonymous with luxury, is rather consumed on special occasions. Champagne is, by its prestige and its festive side, appreciated by the French but also internationally. The United Kingdom, the United States and Germany are the three leading export countries, followed by Japan, Belgium and Australia.

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Champagne wines are special because of the winemaking technique that brings to the wine of Champagne its small bubbles. These bubbles are the result of ‘effervescence’, which is a natural phenomenon that occurs during the fermentation of wines; the yeasts present in the wine transform the sugars in the fruit into carbon dioxide. This speciality makes the prestige and fame of these wines. As a result, Champagne wines have been classified as Appellation d’Origine Contrôlée (AOC) and Appellation d’Origine Protégé (AOP). The Appellations d’Origine Contrôlée of Champagne wines are divided into three categories: Grand Cru, Premier Cru and Other Crus. There are 17 AOC Grand Cru and 42 AOC Premier Cru.

The vineyards of Champagne cover an area of 34,000 hectares. There are three grape varieties, the most important being Chardonnay, Pinot Noir and Meunier. Pinot Noir is a red grape variety and is present at 38%, Meunier is also a black grape variety and is present at 32% and finally Chardonnay is a white grape variety and is present at 30%.

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